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International Journal of Automotive Technology > Volume 17(2); 2016 > Article
International Journal of Automotive Technology 2016;17(2): 319-326.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12239-016-0032-y
OPTIMAL POWER DISTRIBUTION OF FRONT AND REAR MOTORS FOR MINIMIZING ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF 4-WHEEL-DRIVE ELECTRIC VEHICLES
J. KIM
Andong National University
ABSTRACT
In this paper, the optimal power distribution of the front and rear motors for minimizing energy consumption of a 4WD EV is investigated. An optimal power distribution control is developed based on the mathematical energy consumption model of an EV. The objective function is defined while ignoring time. And, the time effect is applied by considering the objective function for every single driving point which consists of the vehicle driving force and velocity. From the optimization problem, the optimal torque distribution maps of the front and rear motors can be obtained for all vehicle driving force and velocity ranges. These maps can be expressed using a 3-dimensional map. If the vehicle driving force and velocity are determined, the optimal front and rear motor torques can be determined using these maps. These maps can distribute the front and rear motor torques for the entire velocity range. Thus, these maps can perform the optimal power (torque times speed) distribution of the front and rear motors for minimizing the energy consumption of the 4WD EV. The performance of the optimal power distribution is evaluated by comparing the energy consumption to that of simple power distribution control. For obtaining the energy consumption, a vehicle driving simulation is performed. For the simulation, the driving cycle is required, and the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) is used. From the simulation results, it is found that the energy consumption of simple power distribution is 4.8 % larger than the optimal one. Thus, the optimal power distribution can minimize the 4WD EV energy consumption as the optimization objective function.
Key Words: Optimization, Power distribution, Electric vehicle, 4-wheel drive, Motor efficiency
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