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International Journal of Automotive Technology > Volume 18(6); 2017 > Article
International Journal of Automotive Technology 2017;18(6): 943-950.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12239-017-0092-7
Jeongwoo Lee1, Sanghyun Chu1, Jaegu Kang1, Kyoungdoug Min1, Hyunsung Jung5, Hyounghyoun Kim5, Yohan Chi5
1Seoul National University
5Hyundai Motor Group
Environmental problems have become a major issue for diesel engine development. Although emission aftertreatment systems such as DPFs (diesel particulate filters), LNTs (lean NOx traps) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction) have been used in diesel vehicles, the manufacturing cost increase caused by this equipment can be hard to be control. Thus, it is better for engine emissions to be reduced by improving the combustion system. A dual-fuel combustion concept is a recommended method to improve a combustion system and effectively reduce emissions. Low reactivity fuel including gasoline and natural gas, which was supplied to the intake port by the FPI (port fuel injector), improved the premixed air-fuel mixture conditions before ignition. Additionally, a small amount of high reactivity fuel, in this case diesel, was injected into the cylinder directly as an ignition source. This dual-fuel combustion promises lower levels of NOx (nitrogen oxide) and PM (particulate matter) emissions due to the elimination of local rich regions in the cylinder. However, it is challenging to control the dual-fuel combustion because the combustion stability and efficiency deteriorate due to the lack of ignition source and reactivity. Thus, it is important to establish an appropriate dual-fuel operating strategy to achieve stable, high efficiency and low emission operation. As a result of this research, a detailed operating method of dual-fuel PCI (premixed compression ignition) was introduced in detail at a low speed and low load condition by using a single cylinder diesel engine. Engine operating parameters including the gasoline ratio, a diesel injection strategy consisting of multiple injectors and timing, the EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) rate and the intake pressure were controlled to satisfy the low ISNOx (indicated specific NOx) and PM emissions levels (0.21 g/kWh and 0.1 FSN, 0.040 g/kWh, respectively) as per the EURO-6 regulation without any after-treatment systems. The results emphasized that a well-constructed dual-fuel PCI operating strategy showed low NOx and PM emissions and high GIE (gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency) with excellent combustion stability.
Key Words: Diesel, Dual fuel combustion, Gasoline, Nitrogen oxides, Particulate matter, Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI)
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