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International Journal of Automotive Technology > Volume 18(6); 2017 > Article
International Journal of Automotive Technology 2017;18(6): 1061-1066.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12239-017-0103-8
Cheol Woong Park1, Chang Gi Kim1, Young Choi1, Sun Youp Lee1, Sung Won Lee1, Ui Hyung Yi1, Jang Hee Lee1, Tae Min Kim8, Duk Sang Kim9
1Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
8E&D Corporation Ltd.
9Doosan Infracore
Natural gas fuel, as an alternative energy source of transportation, has been used widely since it has an advantage of low emission levels. However, new technologies are required in order to meet the reinforced emission regulations. For this purpose, research into the development of hydrogen-compressed natural gas (HCNG) blend engine was carried out to evaluate its feasibility and emission characteristics. The Engine Research Department at the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials carried out a large number of tests based on various parameter changes that could affect the performance and emission of HCNG engine in different operating conditions. An earlier stage of the research project focused on the lean combustion of a HCNG engine for heavy duty vehicles to meet the EURO-VI standards. An 11-L/6-cylinder CNG engine was used for the test. The effects of the excess air ratio change were assessed based on various content ratios of hydrogen in the natural gas fuel. In the later part of the HCNG research, a stoichiometric mixture operation was suggested to meet reinforced emission regulation without requiring a De-NOx system. Additionally, an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system was introduced for the purpose of improving thermal efficiency and durability. The optimal operating conditions were selected to achieve the best thermal efficiency to meet the required emission levels. In this paper, we demonstrate that a HCNG engine can achieve a significant decrease in NOx emissions, as compared to that of a CNG engine, while meeting the requirements of the EURO-VI standards during a transient mode cycle test. EGR can suppress the weakness of stoichiometric mixture combustion strategy, such as the deterioration of the durability and thermal efficiency, while the emission level can be lowered with the use of a three-way catalyst. The possibility of further reduction of emissions and CO2 with EGR was evaluated to access practical application of a HCNG engine in the field. From that evaluation, the HCNG engine with stoichiometric mixture operation for heavy duty vehicles was developed. The emission levels of HCNG engine were 50 % lower when compared to the EURO-VI standards with a greater than 10 % decrease in CO2 compared to that of a natural gas engine.
Key Words: HCNG, Lean combustion, Stoichiometric, EGR, CO2
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