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International Journal of Automotive Technology > Volume 12(5); 2011 > Article
International Journal of Automotive Technology 2011;12(5): 721-732.
COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF CHARGE STRATIFICATION IN EARLY-INJECTION SCCI ENGINES UNDER LIGHT-LOAD CONDITIONS
J. ABRAHAM
Purdue University
ABSTRACT
Under light-load conditions in early-injection stratified-charge compression-ignition (SCCI) engines, excessive premixing can lead to undesirable levels of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Optimal stratification can reduce these emissions. In this work, the effects of changes in swirl, injection pressure, injector hole-size and number of holes, injection timing, and piston geometry on stratification are computationally investigated. It is shown that these parameters affect the stratification through their influence on the rate of spray penetration, drop vaporization, and fuel/air mixing. The outcome is characterized by examining the evolution of the spatial distribution of the fuel vapor in the chamber and its mass-based distribution function. All other parameters remaining the same, decreasing drop size leads to faster vaporization and richer mixtures. Increasing penetration leads to greater spreading and leaner mixtures. Increasing spray included-angle leads to greater spreading and leaner mixtures. Increasing injection pressure leads to increased mixing and leaner mixtures. Increasing injector hole-size leads to richer mixtures at lighter loads because the duration of injection is reduced and the fuel is confined closer to the axis. Increasing swirl leads to faster breakup of the head-vortex and confinement of the fuel closer to the axis, and hence richer mixture.
Key Words: Stratified-charge engines, HCCI engines, Low-temperature combustion, Compression-ignition engines
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