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International Journal of Automotive Technology > Volume 18(5); 2017 > Article
International Journal of Automotive Technology 2017;18(5): 933-942.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12239-017-0091-8
Chang-Woo Son, Wansik Choi, Changsun Ahn
Pusan National University
We propose a steering control algorithm for autonomous backward driving in a narrow corridor. Passable spaces are detected using a stereo camera, and the steering angle is controlled by a model predictive controller (MPC). For passable space detection, an UV-disparity map is calculated from the original disparity map. Information regarding passable spaces collected by the stereo camera is used in steering control. Backward driving requires the driver’s preemptive actions, which can be learned by experience because of the non-intuitive responses (the initial motion of the vehicle is opposite to the driver’s steering angle input). This occurs because a backward-driving vehicle is a non-minimum phase system. One of the most popular steering control algorithms is Stanley method, which is based on the feedback of lateral displacement error and heading angle error. The method is very intuitive and works well for forward driving, but it exhibits significant undershoot for backward driving cases. Furthermore, the method does not explicitly consider any constraints on control inputs and states. We designed a steering controller based on the MPC technique that requires future information but can handle constraints explicitly. Because we have near-future information from the stereo camera under limited passable spaces, MPC can be effectively implemented. We performed several simulations and experiments to show the performance and superiority of the suggested method over a simple feedback-based control algorithm.
Key Words: Stereo vision, Autonomous driving, Backward driving, Model predictive control
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