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International Journal of Automotive Technology > Volume 23(6); 2022 > Article
International Journal of Automotive Technology 2022;23(6): 1763-1785.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12239-022-0154-3
Chetankumar Patel 1, Joonsik Hwang 2, Choongsik Bae 3, Avinash Kumar Agarwal 4
1Mechanical Engineering Department, Sitarambhai Naranji Patel Institute of Technology and Research Centre
2Centre for Advanced Vehicular Systems (CAVS), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST School of Mechanical
4Engine Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
PDF Links Corresponding Author.  Avinash Kumar Agarwal  , Email. akag@iitk.ac.in
Compression-ignition (CI) engines have been utilised in transport and power generation sectors due to their excellent thermal efficiency, robustness and durability. However, the rapid depletion of crude oil reserves and environmental concerns have forced CI engines to be powered by alternative and environment-friendly renewable fuels. Biodiesel, which contains ~10 % (w/w) oxygen in its fuel molecules, has become a popular alternative fuel for CI engines. Biodiesel can be stored similar to mineral diesel. Hence it does not require a separate fuel distribution infrastructure. The fuel properties of biodiesel are very close to mineral diesel; hence conventional CI engines can be fueled with biodiesel/blends without major modifications in the engine hardware/software. It is also widely known that biodiesel in CI engines brings significant benefits of lower emissions such as unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter (PM). Since biodiesel is considered an attractive alternative fuel, there are many attempts to produce and utilise biodiesel in different applications from various feedstocks such as soybean, rapeseed, and waste cooking oil. Hence, it is necessary to understand the effects of biodiesel feedstocks and engine applications (operating conditions, engine type, etc.) on regulated and unregulated emissions. This paper reviews effects of biodiesel on regulated/unregulated/particulate matter (PM) emissions based on numerous experimental research studies in open literature conducted on a variety of engines using different biodiesels.
Key Words: Compression ignition engine, Biodiesel, Regulated emissions, Unregulated emissions, Particulate matter
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