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International Journal of Automotive Technology > Volume 25(3); 2024 > Article
International Journal of Automotive Technology 2024;25(3): 481-493.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12239-024-00038-2
Comparison of Various Angle-tracking Algorithms to Balance Performance and Noise for a Steering-by-wire System
He Liu , Yahui Liu , Jingyuan Li , Xuewu Ji
Tsinghua University
PDF Links Corresponding Author.  Yahui Liu  , Email. liuyahui@tsinghua.edu.cn
This paper compares various angle-tracking algorithms to balance the performance and noise for a steering-by-wire (SBW) system. Direct and quiet steering experiences can improve drivers’ acceptance of the SBW system. Linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control, robust control, and conventional cascade proportional–integral (PI) control have been developed and compared both theoretically and experimentally. To avoid the risky and time-consuming parameter-tuning process, a high-fidelity steering resistance model, which comprises a linear two-degree-of-freedom vehicle model and a dynamic LuGre friction model is established. Step and sine wave tests are simulated in a Matlab/Simulink environment to determine the reasonable parameter region for various methods. Then, the three types of algorithms are implemented on a prototype SBW vehicle and compared under the same scenarios. Finally, the simulated and experimental results are illustrated in detail. According to the indicators of control bandwidths, steady-state errors, cockpit sounds, and current waveforms, it is clear that LQR and robust control can achieve faster response and more acceptable noise, with uncertain and relatively larger tracking errors. Cascade PI control, in comparison, can realize smaller steady-state errors and gentler current waveforms, with slight noise and slower response.
Key Words: Steering-by-wire · Angle tracking · Linear quadratic regulator · Robust controller
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