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International Journal of Automotive Technology > Volume 25(3); 2024 > Article
International Journal of Automotive Technology 2024;25(3): 523-531.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12239-024-00041-7
Performance and Emission of Non-surfactant Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel Using Light-Duty Trucks on Urban Road Conditions
Muhammad Adib Abdul Rashid 1, Ahmad Muhsin Ithnin 1, Wira Jazair Yahya 1, Nur Atiqah Ramlan 2, Nurul Aiyshah Mazlan 1, Hasannuddin Abd Kadir 3, Dhani Avianto Sugeng 4, Kinoshita Eiji 5
1Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra
2MAHSA University
3Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Johor
5Kagoshima University
PDF Links Corresponding Author.  Ahmad Muhsin Ithnin  , Email. pghan@hyundai-kefi co.com
In road transport, varying fuel flow rates make it hard to maintain a consistent water ratio in non-surfactant emulsion fuels using the Real-Time Non-Surfactant Emulsion Fuel Supply System (RTES). Thus, it becomes more reasonable to establish an appropriate range of water content tailored to a road condition. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of non-surfactant emulsion fuel in light-duty trucks equipped with RTES, focusing specifically on urban conditions. On-road testing and 300-s idling tests were used as the urban conditions to compare diesel with non-surfactant Water-in-Diesel Emulsion (WiDE) fuel with water percentages from low to high concentrations of water, namely WiDE low%, WiDE med%, and WiDE high%. During idling tests, all emulsion variants reduce fuel consumption. WiDE high% exhibits the most substantial NOx reduction of 9.2%. On-road testing reveals comparable WiDE and diesel fuel consumption, despite the RTES increased electrical load. WiDE high% shows an increment for NOx and CO emissions by 11.71% and 202.19%. In conclusion, a 7.4% to 21.1% water content range was suggested for non-surfactant emulsion fuel in urban road conditions.
Key Words: Non-surfactant emulsion fuel · Water-in-diesel · Fuel performance · Emissions reduction · Urban road
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